Sunday, May 24, 2020

John Stuart Mills Work - 881 Words

John Stuart Mill’s work provides a valuable insight to the issue of medicine that harm people in the classical utilitarian. Many people consider that prescription for medical marijuana as a moral sin or something that should be given to help the patients to improve his/her bad condition. As a majority of people and federal consider prescription for medical marijuana is immoral and it is restricted in many states including Texas. In the section on liberty, John Stuart Mill introduces the harm principle. Mill believes that â€Å"The only legitimate ground for social coercion is to prevent someone from doing harm to others†. (John Stuart Mill handout, Principle 1). It means that everyone should have their own individual liberty to think as they satisfy unless their actions or decisions may not cause harm to others. I am cancer patients, in first stage. Doctor can cure my disease; doctor gave prescription for medical marijuana. However, I live in a Texas, where medicine is legal but federal government do not give permission to use medical marijuana, which is somewhat unfair to me and other cancer patients. Here people are minority group and majority people do not to listens minority group. Federal government has a reason behind to make Marijuana medicine illegal but according to Mill, if that medicine does not harm others and helpful to cancer patients, then it should not be illegal. Mills also believe that a person should be given the freedom to formShow MoreRelatedUtilitarian Perspective On Feminism1563 Words   |  7 PagesRights John Stuart Mill’s discussion of the subjection of women leaves many scholars regarding him as one of the first feminist philosophers of his time. His work analyzes and questions the everyday perspectives on women’s rights, and challenges common societal notions. Many philosophers today look to his work for a variety of reasons; some applaud his work for being ahead of it’s time. Others dismiss it, claiming that it’s flawed due to personal attachment. Both sides however regard Mill’s writingRead MoreA Research Paper on the Life of John Stuart Mill876 Words   |  3 PagesThis research paper focuses on the life of John Stuart Mill and how it affected his economic theories. John Stuart Mill’s grew up unlike most, raised since his adolescence to be the face of utilitarianism. This upbringing may have had some effect on his theories and overall beliefs in his economic policies. Born in 1806, John Stuart Mill was the son of economist James Mill. From a very early age his father instilled a discipline of studies. When he was very young he began to read Latin, and comprehendRead More`` On Liberty `` By John Stuart Mill1458 Words   |  6 PagesJohn Stuart Mill was an English philosopher and a progressive in British politics during the 17th century. He lived during a time of political transformation in England caused by the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution brought social mobility to the middle and lower class, along with more political participation. With this newfound freedom, the people of England felt their liberties were being diminished because they had the ability to accomplish all the more but in some cases, couldRead MoreAnalysis Of The Negro Question And John Stuart Mill1426 Words   |  6 PagesOccasional Discourse On The Negro Question and John Stuart Mill’s responding essay, The Negro Question, primarily deal with the implications of a liberated black population in the West Indies. However, the texture of their respective arguments lends itself to rhetoric of nature and agriculture. Carlyle and Mill could not see humanity’s relationship with nature more differently. Due to different understandings of humanity’s relationship with nature, Carlyle and Mill’s evaluation of agricultural productivityRead MoreJohn Stuart Mill s Argument That Happiness Is The Only Intrinsic Good1354 Words   |  6 PagesIn this essay I am going to write about John Stuart Mill’s argument that happiness is the only intrinsic good. Mill’s proof focuses on defending utilitarianism, one of the most prominent works in moral philosophy and most prominent form of consequentialism as proposed by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Mill defines the theory and provides his responses to common misconceptions people have surrounding it. Utility, the Greatest Happiness Principle, states that actions are right in that they generallyRead MoreA Study Of Ethics By Immanuel Kant And John Stuart Mill992 Words   |  4 PagesWoman Syndrome (BWS). The two most renowned ethicists, Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill would view this case differently. Kantianism is associated solely with Immanuel Kant. In comparison, John Stuart Mill, an opp onent of Immanuel Kant’s ideas, uses a utilitarian approach. This essay will briefly give an overview of the case and the BWS. Then, it will show how both theories view the case. Overall, this paper argues that Mill’s theory is a better theory that supports the verdict. R.v Lavallee: BriefRead MoreComparing Aristotle And John Stuart Mill1130 Words   |  5 Pagesdissected this important topic, however I intend to concentrate of the famous works of Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, and John Stuart Mill. After meticulously analyzing each of the above philosophers’ texts, I personally prefer the position of utilitarian and Benthamite, John Stuart Mill. After comparing and contrasting the positions and reasonings of these philosophers, I will demonstrate my own reasons why I have chosen John Stuart Mill as the most established in his theory of the role of pleasure in moralityRead MoreAnalysis Of The Text On Liberty By John Stuart Mill1642 Words   |  7 PagesRegarding Mill’s argument â€Å"If all mankind minus one were of one opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person, than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind,† the justification for this statement is to present his ideology o n the subject of free speech. According the text ‘On Liberty’ by John Stuart Mill, his position with respect to free speech is that even one person had a specific opinion, mankind is not given grounds to silence him. Mill’s argumentRead MoreKarl Marx And John Stuart Mill Essay1576 Words   |  7 PagesKarl Marx and John Stuart Mill were both philosophers who lived in the 1800s. Beginning with Karl Marx, he was a German philosopher, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. In his adult years, Marx was not recognized as a citizen of any country even though he was born in Germany and he spent most of his years in London, England. There, he continued to evolve his philosophy and social thought in participation or collaboration with a German thinker called Friedrich Engels. They worked together andRead MoreAbortion (Marry Anne Warren â€Å"on the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion, † and â€Å"Utilitarianism.†)1611 Words   |  7 PagesIn Warrenâ€℠¢s â€Å"On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion,† she uses different principles to clearly explain why abortion is morally acceptable. In her writing she combats two different ideas on abortion. These two ideas are from John T. Noonan and Judith Thompson. Against John T. Noonan, Warren argues that the fetus is not a person. She relies on distinguishing two different senses of the human; the biological sense and the moral sense. Warren argues that the fetus is not human in the moral sense, by

Monday, May 18, 2020

Harriet Quimby Quotes Pioneer Woman Pilot

Harriet Quimby was one of the first female pilots. She was the first American woman to earn a pilots license, and the first woman to fly solo across the English Channel. See: Harriet Quimby Biography Selected Harriet Quimby Quotations There is no reason why the aeroplane should not open up a fruitful occupation for women. I see no reason they cannot realize handsome incomes by carrying passengers between adjacent towns, from parcel delivery, taking photographs or conducting schools of flying. Any of these things it is now possible to do. Everyone asks me how it feels to fly. It feels like riding in a high powered automobile, minus bumping over the rough roads, continually signaling to clear the way and keeping a watchful on the speedometer to see that you do not exceed the speed limit and provoke the wrath of the bicycle policeman or the covetous constable. I do feel well qualified to tell a beginner how she must dress and what she must do if she expects to be a flyer. If a woman wants to fly, first of all, she must, of course, abandon skirts and don a knickerbocker uniform. The speed with which an aviator flies and the strong currents created by the rapidly revolving propeller directly in front of the diver compel the latter to be warmly clad. There must be no flapping ends to catch in the multitudinous wires surrounding the drivers seat. The feet and legs must be free, so that one can readily manipulate the steering apparatus... Before the student climbs into her seat, she will discover why it is well to cover her natty costume with washable jumpers or overalls. Not only the chassis of the machine, but all the fixtures are slippery with lubricating oil, and when the engine is speeded a shower of this oil is also thrown back directly into the drivers face. The men flyers have given out the impression that aeroplaning is very perilous work, something that an ordinary mortal should not dream of attempting. But when I saw how easily the man flyers manipulated their machines I said I could fly. I was annoyed from the start by the attitude of doubt on the part of the spectators that I would never really make the flight. They knew I had never used the machine before, and probably thought I would find some excuse at the last moment to back out of the flight. This attitude made me more determined than ever to succeed. About These Quotes Quote collection assembled by Jone Johnson Lewis. Each quotation page in this collection and the entire collection. This is an informal collection assembled over many years.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Quantitative Research Report Essay - 1061 Words

Running head: QUANITATIVE RESEARCH REPORT Quantitative Research Report M. Ellen Kingsley Grand Canyon University NRS-433V May 06, 2011 The Quantitative Research that this student chose is titled; Interventions to Promote Physical Activity in Chronically Ill Adults. Physical activity in chronically ill adults is a topic that is very important to study, people, in general, do not realize the importance of exercise and if there is proof that exercise is beneficial to people with long term illnesses then maybe, by nurses, the patients can be persuaded to be involved in more exercise which would improve their health and quality of life, including improving their illnesses without more medications. Nurses provide a lot of client†¦show more content†¦This article used Meta-analysis as a means of quantitatively synthesizing findings across many research studies. This is inclusive of findings of 163 reports of different studies. The study design is meta-analysis. This brings findings from many studies and brings them together into one. This allows nurses and educators the ability to look at one study and see man y different results and to learn many different things that could be passed on to the clients that they serve, including not only the amount and intensity of exercise, but also the way to implement education of clients that would be the most effective. Sampling and setting is different for each study and when this kind of article is written about many studies, the samples vary with each study, as does the target population. This does allow nurses to see many different studies in one. This article has different levels of findings, and clearly states each level and the effects of different exercises and intensity of exercises. There were many interventions used and studies and interventions that consisted of cognitive strategies were less effective than other interventions. This had no effect on the success of promoting physical activity. The limitations included the number and range of primary intervention trials that were reported. Many trials that are done are not reported at all or are reported in very small venues. ThereShow MoreRelatedCritical Appraisal Of A Quantitative Research Report1757 Words   |  8 Pages Critical Appraisal of a Quantitative Research Report â€Å"Nurse empowerment Job-Related Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment† Rebecca Jordan Georgetown University TITLE Nurse Empowerment Job-Related Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment by Liisa Kuokkanen, MNSc, RN; Helena Leino-Kilip, PhD, RN; and Joukp Katajisto, MSSc is a well written title that addresses the key variables such as: job satisfaction, nurse empowerment, and organizational commitment; however, it couldRead More Report of Quantitative Research1958 Words   |  8 Pages D. and Collins, P. published the findings of their research on EL students and the advantages of a specialized learning program. Over a period of several months, the researchers studied and worked with students from a middle school in southern California. At the end of the study, it was hoped that their efforts would lead to an improvement in the students who participated in the programs understanding of English vocabulary words. Research Questions/Hypotheses No specific hypothesis is notedRead MoreOutline of Literature Review and Analysis of a Quantitative Research Report2197 Words   |  9 PagesLiterature Review Outline Locate three published research articles: one quantitative research study, one qualitative research study, and one mixed methods research study. Each of the three studies must have been published in a peer-reviewed journal. Analysis of a Qualitative Research Report: Problem statement: 1.) What is the problem the study was conducted to address? Many schools have not adopted new electronic-era media literacies into their core curricula, but understanding theseRead MoreThe Role Of Criminological Research On Theory Building767 Words   |  4 Pagesrole of criminological research in theory building? By constructing theories or representations we can increase our understanding of criminal conduct. Through improving our understanding we can create effective, and operational strategies to handle crime issues. We must have a sufficient amount of accurate and documented research, and or experiments to prove the validity of our research. Research is attaining the information and data needed to generate a theory. We gather research by creating specificRead MoreQualitative And Quantitative And Qualitative Methodologies953 Words   |  4 Pageshave the balance of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a combined methodologies research study. It is interesting to note that, one clear practical issue in combining both methods is the issue whether the combined methodologies are â€Å"genuinely integrated† (Bryman, 2007). Bryman further argued, to what extent do researchers who combined both methodologies analyse, interpret and write up their research in a way that both qualitative and quantitative components are mutually integrated. MoreoverRead MoreQr Code Research1259 Words   |  6 PagesProject Scan A market research on QR Code utilization in Canada A research proposal September 30th, 2011 Prepared for: Google Inc. and WPP Introduction This proposal responds to Google Inc. (Google) and WPP’s requests to formulate a better understanding of mobile advertising models, in relation to online marketing. This report is being undertaken to research specifically on Quick Response Codes (QR Codes) in the Canadian market. Background QR Codes originated in Japan to track automotiveRead MoreAn Evaluation Of The Information From The Feedback Register Essay1225 Words   |  5 Pages You will also need to develop a research brief for your Manager that: Provides an evaluation of the information from the feedback register, including key findings. †¢ Demographic data: Demographic data indicates that there is a statistically significant socio-economic nature, such as hemophilia population, income, race, education and employment, which is represented by the geographic location of the specific and often associated with time. For example, when we are talking about the population ofRead MorePrinciples And Procedures Of Logical Thought Processes1723 Words   |  7 Pages4.0 Chapter 4 Methodology 4.1 Introduction Naoum argues that research methodology is relevant to principles and procedures of logical thought processes that are applied to an investigation by stating â€Å"Research design is an action plan for getting form ‘here’ to ‘there’ where ‘here’ may be defined as the initial set of questions to be answered, and ‘there’ is some set of the conclusion (answers) about the questions†. Between ‘here’ and ‘there’ may be found a number of major steps including the collectionRead MoreThe Real Estate Development And Other Investment Multipronged Implication1293 Words   |  6 PagesResearch Methodology The chapter contains the methodology which would be employed for the study that focused on the real estate development and other investment multipronged implication to the sustenance of rural livelihood analysis of Dukem town. To performed the study, the researcher design the descriptive or explanatory approach entirely focused both qualitative and quantitative methods to collect primary as well as secondary data using interviews, questionnaire, FGD, observation and expert panelRead MoreWhat Are The Types Of Research Philosophies?1115 Words   |  5 PagesAccording to Kumar (2010), a research methodology is a is an investigation that uses laid down scientific procedures in the formulation of problems, creation of hypothesis or identification of the laid down methods of answering research questions. 3.1 Research philosophy Whenever providing a research methodology, it is important to determine the exact philosophy that will be used in the research. There are two main types of research philosophies. These are analytical or descriptive philosophies

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Maynard And Maynard High School Essay - 810 Words

Maynard High School is located in rural Randolph County northeastern Arkansas. Randolph County is a majority rural county with Pocahontas (population under 7,000) being its largest city and Maynard (population under 500) being its second largest city. In 2013, the population was estimated to be 17,692 for the entire county (Randolph County, Arkansas, 2014). Over half the population lives in rural areas. The county is comprised of 96.9% White, 1% African American, 1.8% Hispanic or Latino, and less than 1% of Asian American and Native American (Randolph County, Arkansas, 2014). Maynard School District is the second largest school district in Randolph County. In the 2013-2014 school year, the district enrolled 460 students K-12 (ESEA Report, 2014). The high school (grades 7-12) comprised 213 of the 460 students with an attendance rate of 94.9% and a dropout rate of 0.47%. The high school is consists of 97.7% White, 1.4% Hispanic or Latino, and less than 1% mixed race. Low-income student s make up 69% of the student population and students that can receive special education comprises 11% (School Performance Report Card, 2013). Maynard High School has a class average size of 10 students per teacher. Teachers on average have 10 years of experience with 25% holding a Bachelor’s degree and 75% holding a Master’s degree. Teachers teaching core academic subjects are all considered to be highly qualified teachers (School Performance Report Card). Maynard High School is a focus schoolShow MoreRelatedCalifornia Should Adopt Oregon s Death With Dignity Law826 Words   |  4 Pagesenjoyed socializing economically and professionally (Karaim 455). The article â€Å"Brittany Maynard Death With Dignity Advocate for ‘Death With Dignity’ Dies† by Catherine E. Shoichet delivers the story of Brittany Maynard. She was diagnosed with brain cancer in 2012 and was told she had from 3-10 years to live. However, in another diagnose that she had she was told she only had about six months to live. Maynard graduated from Berkeley and obtained a Masters in Education from the University of IrvineRead MoreJohn Maynard Keynes s Economic Theory And Policy After World War II1307 Words   |  6 PagesAt the start of the Great Depression, people in all affected countries believed that a free market - based on supply and demand with no government control - would deliver full employment. John Maynard Keynes came up with a theory as a counterargument: that aggregate demand is the single most powerful force in any economy. Keynes explains that free markets are not able to balance themselves out enough to lead to the full employment everyone was waiting for. The 1930s gave rise to Keynes’ ideas, especiallyRead MoreKayne vs Hayek1370 Words   |  6 Pagesinfluenced the economics; â€Å"John Maynard Keynes† was born on June 5, 1883. He was a British economist whose ideas have profoundly affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, as well as the economic policies of governments. He greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, and advocated the use of fiscal and monetary measures to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as â€Å"Keynesian economics†Read MoreFunction of E-Book1449 Words   |  6 Pagesget to watch clips and interact with a variety of specialities. It has been proven that the youngsters can gain a lot from the added applications (Maynard and McKnight, 2001). At schools, e-textbooks on the other hand will reduce the number of printed textbooks that not only burden both the teachers and students carrying them to-and-fro around the school compound. This enables the teacher to easily bring the notes including the exer cises to be given to the student which thus increases the effectivenessRead MoreReading For Fun By The Naep ( National Assessment Of Education Progress1677 Words   |  7 Pagesthat is challenging to them, begin a task without being prompted, show serious effort and concentration while completing tasks, have a positive attitude toward learning and school work, will use coping strategies to overcome obstacles, and see tasks through until they are successful. Completely reading book outside of school is a challenging task that requires effort and concentration and the use of coping strategies while continuing to learn. What motivates a student to do something like that? ToRead MoreCase Study # 1 Adolescent Development1610 Words   |  7 Pages1967, Dr. David Elkind defined adolescent egocentrism as adolescents’ believing that everyone around them is as concerned about their appearance as they are. He reported that adolescents tend to relax with this idealism the older they ge t (Schwartz, Maynard, Uzelac page 441). Though the case study scenario depicts a younger student, the example it provides is relevant to the study. In chapter 2, Ericksons definition of identity is described as, â€Å"being at home with ones body† (Snowman, McGowan, BiehlerRead More John Maynard Keynes Essay examples4182 Words   |  17 PagesJohn Maynard Keynes John Maynard Keynes was born in 1883 which means he lived around the same time period as the seven creative individuals which Howard Gardner chose to focus on in his book Creating Minds. I chose to look at the life of Maynard Keynes because it is such a fascinating and diverse one. While entailing some of the same features found in the lives of those Gardner focused on, Maynards life includes a lot of differences and adds some interesting twists as well. It can only beRead MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legal?1656 Words   |  7 Pagesrecent cancer story that has been told everywhere on the media on the death-with-dignity law (Bagg). On October of 2014, the 29 year old Brittany Maynard with a fatal brain cancer chose to end her life. It all started in April of 2014, when a tumor on her brain became larger and more aggressive that is when Brittany looked into the end-of-life option (Maynard). According to Maynard’s article on CNN, from doctor visits to looking into the side effects for her full brain radiation to researching on deathRead MoreThe Face Of Physician Assisted Suicide Or Pas1862 Words   |  8 PagesIn 2014, Brittany Maynard became the face for those supporting physician assisted suicide or PAS. At 29 years old and newly married, Maynard was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer and immediately underwent a partial craniotomy and partial resection. Her tumor came back much stronger, however, and in April she was given six months to live. Maynard’s only treatment option to slow but not stop the growth of the tumor was full brain radiation, but she opted against this because of the unavoidable sideRead MoreEssay on John Maynard Keynes Versus Friederich A. Hayek603 Words   |  3 PagesTwo major economic thinkers of the of the early twentieth century, John Maynard Keynes and Friedrich A. Hayek, hold very different economic viewpoints. Keynes is among the most famous economic philosophers. Keynes, whos theories gained a reputation during the Gre at Depression in the 1930s, focused mainly on an economys bust. It is where the economy declines and finally bottoms-out, that Keynesian economics believes the answers lie for its eventual recovery. On the other hand, Hayek believed that

Computer Ethics and Information Systems Free Essays

string(81) " to wait for your turn and generally be nice to other people in the environment\." â€Å"Computer Ethics and Information Security† a. Introduction The consideration of computer ethics fundamentally emerged with the birth of computers. There was concern right away that computers would be used inappropriately to the detriment of society compromising information security, or that they would replace humans in many jobs, resulting in widespread job loss. We will write a custom essay sample on Computer Ethics and Information Systems or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ethics- Guidelines or rules of conduct that govern our lives, work, behavior and communication in both public and private undertaking. Ethics are a set of moral principles that govern an individual or a group on what is acceptable behaviour while using a computer. Computer ethics is a set of moral principles that govern the usage of computers. One of the common issues of computer ethics is violation of copyright issues. Duplicating copyrighted content without the author’s approval, accessing personal information of others are some of the examples that violate ethical principles. Security – is the degree of protection to safeguard a nation, union of nations, persons or person against danger, damage, loss, and crime. Security as a form of protection are structures and processes that provide or improve security as a condition. Information security means protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, inspection, recording or destruction Computer Ethics- is a branch of practical philosophy which deals with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct. b. Discussion Computer Ethics Ethics deals with placing a â€Å"value† on acts according to whether they are â€Å"good† or â€Å"bad†. Every society has its rules about whether certain acts are ethical or not. These rules have been established as a result of consensus in society and are often written into laws. When computers first began to be used in society at large, the absence of ethical standards about their use and related issues caused some problems. However, as their use became widespread in every facet of our lives, discussions in computer ethics resulted in some kind of a consensus. Today, many of these rules have been formulated as laws, either national or international. Computer crimes and computer fraud are now common terms. There are laws against them, and veryone is responsible for knowing what constitutes computer crime and computer fraud. The Ten Commandments of computer ethics have been defined by the Computer Ethics Institute. Here is our interpretation of them: 1) Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people: If it is unethical to harm people by making a bomb, for example, it is equally bad to write a program that handles the timing of the bomb. Or, to put it more simply, if it is bad to steal and destroy other people’s books and notebooks, it is equally bad to access and destroy their files. ) Thou shalt not interfere with other people’s computer work: Computer viruses are small programs that disrupt other people’s computer work by destroying their files, taking huge amounts of computer time or memory, or by simply displaying annoying messages. Generating and consciously spreading computer viruses is unethical. 3) Thou shalt not snoop around in other people’s files: Reading other people’s e-mail messages is as bad as opening and reading their letters: This is invading their privacy. Obtaining other people’s non-public files should be judged the same way as breaking into their rooms and stealing their documents. Text documents on the Internet may be protected by encryption. 4) Thou shalt not use a computer to steal: Using a computer to break into the accounts of a company or a bank and transferring money should be judged the same way as robbery. It is illegal and there are strict laws against it. 5) Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness: The Internet can spread untruth as fast as it can spread truth. Putting out false â€Å"information† to the world is bad. For instance, spreading false rumors about a person or false propaganda about historical events is wrong. ) Thou shalt not use or copy software for which you have not paid: Software is an intellectual product. In that way, it is like a book: Obtaining illegal copies of copyrighted software is as bad as photocopying a copyrighted book. There are laws against both. Information about the copyright owner can be embedded by a process called watermarking into pictures in the digital format. 7) Thou shalt not use other peopl e’s computer resources without authorization: Multiuser systems use user id’s and passwords to enforce their memory and time allocations, and to safeguard information. You should not try to bypass this authorization system. Hacking a system to break and bypass the authorization is unethical. 8) Thou shalt not appropriate other people’s intellectual output: For example, the programs you write for the projects assigned in this course are your own intellectual output. Copying somebody else’s program without proper authorization is software piracy and is unethical. Intellectual property is a form of ownership, and may be protected by copyright laws. ) Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you write: You have to think about computer issues in a more general social framework: Can the program you write be used in a way that is harmful to society? For example, if you are working for an animation house, and are producing animated films for children, you are responsible for their contents. Do the animations include scenes that can be harmful to children? In the United States, the Communications Decency Act was an attempt by lawmakers to ban certain types of content from Internet websites to protect young children from harmful material. That law was struck down because it violated the free speech principles in that country’s constitution. The discussion, of course, is going on. 10) Thou shalt use a computer in ways that show consideration and respect: Just like public buses or banks, people using computer communications systems may find themselves in situations where there is some form of queuing and you have to wait for your turn and generally be nice to other people in the environment. You read "Computer Ethics and Information Systems" in category "Essay examples" The fact that you cannot see the people you are interacting with does not mean that you can be rude to them. Ethical Issues :- †¢Computers in the Workplace Computer Crime †¢ Privacy and Anonymity †¢ Intellectual Property †¢Professional Responsibility †¢Globalization Computers in the Workplace. Computers can pose a threat to jobs as people feel they may be replaced by them. However, the computer industry already has generat ed a wide variety of new jobs. When computers do not eliminate a job, they can radically alter it. In addition to job security concerns, another workplace concern is health and safety. It is a computer ethics issue to consider how computers impact health and job satisfaction when information technology is introduced into a workplace. Computer Crime. With the proliferation of computer viruses, spyware, phishing and fraud schemes, and hacking activity from every location in the world, computer crime and security are certainly topics of concern when discussing computer ethics. Besides outsiders, or hackers, many computer crimes, such as embezzlement or planting of logic bombs, are committed by trusted personnel who have authorization to use company computer systems. Privacy and Anonymity. One of the earliest computer ethics topics to arouse public interest was privacy. The ease and efficiency with which computers and networks can be used to gather, store, search, compare, retrieve, and share personal information make computer technology especially threatening to anyone who wishes to keep personal information out of the public domain or out of the hands of those who are perceived as potential threats. The variety of privacy-related issues generated by computer technology has led to reexamination of the concept of privacy itself. Intellectual Property. One of the more controversial areas of computer ethics concerns the intellectual property rights connected with software ownership. Some people, like Richard Stallman, who started the Free Software Foundation, believe that software ownership should not be allowed at all. He claims that all information should be free, and all programs should be available for copying, studying, and modifying by anyone who wishes to do so. Others, such as Deborah Johnson, argue that software companies or programmers would not invest weeks and months of work and significant funds in the development of software if they could not get the investment back in the form of license fees or sales. Professional Responsibility and Globalization. Global networks such as the Internet and conglomerates of business-to-business network connections are connecting people and information worldwide. Such globalization issues that include ethics considerations include: †¢Global laws †¢Global business †¢Global education †¢Global information flows †¢Information-rich and information-poor nations †¢Information interpretation The gap between rich and poor nations, and between rich and poor citizens in industrialized countries, is very wide. As educational opportunities, business and employment opportunities, medical services, and many other necessities of life move more and more into cyberspace, gaps between the rich and the poor may become even worse, leading to new ethical considerations. Common Computer Ethics Fallacies Although computer education is starting to be incorporated in lower grades in elementary schools, the lack of early computer education for most current adults led to several documented generally accepted fallacies that apply to nearly all computer users. As technology advances, these fallacies will change; new ones will arise, and some of the original fallacies will no longer exist as children learn at an earlier age about computer use, risks, security, and other associated information. There are more than described here, but Peter S. Tippett identified the following computer ethics fallacies, which have been widely discussed and generally accepted as being representative of the most common. The Computer Game Fallacy. Computer users tend to think that computers will generally prevent them from cheating and doing wrong. Programmers particularly believe that an error in programming syntax will prevent it from working, so that if a software program does indeed work, then it must be working correctly and preventing bad things or mistakes from happening. Even computer users in general have gotten the message that computers work with exacting accuracy and will not allow actions that should not occur. Of course, what computer users often do not consider is that although the computer operates under very strict rules, the software programs are written by humans and are just as susceptible to allowing bad things to happen as people often are in their own lives. Along with this, there is also the perception that a person can do something with a computer without being caught, so that if what is being done is not permissible, the computer should somehow prevent them from doing it. The Law-Abiding Citizen Fallacy. Laws provide guidance for many things, including computer use. Sometimes users confuse what is legal with regard to computer use with what is reasonable behavior for using computers. Laws basically define the minimum standard about which actions can be reasonably judged, but such laws also call for individual judgment. Computer users often do not realize they also have a responsibility to consider the ramifications of their actions and to behave accordingly. The Shatterproof Fallacy. Many, if not most, computer users believe that they can do little harm accidentally with a computer beyond perhaps erasing or messing up a file. However, computers are tools that can harm, even if computer users are unaware of the fact that their computer actions have actually hurt someone else in some way. For example, sending an email flame to a large group of recipients is the same as publicly humiliating them. Most people realize that they could be sued for libel for making such statements in a physical public forum, but may not realize they are also responsible for what they communicate and for their words and accusations on the Internet. As another example, forwarding e-mail without permission of the author can lead to harm or embarrassment if the original sender was communicating privately without expectation of his message being seen by any others. Also, using e-mail to stalk someone, to send spam, and to harass or offend the recipient in some way also are harmful uses of computers. Software piracy is yet another example of using computers to, in effect, hurt others. Generally, the shatterproof fallacy is the belief that what a person does with a computer can do minimal harm, and only affects perhaps a few files on the computer itself; it is not considering the impact of actions before doing them. The Candy-from-a-Baby Fallacy. Illegal and unethical activity, such as software piracy and plagiarism, are very easy to do with a computer. However, just because it is easy does not mean that it is right. Because of the ease with which computers can make copies, it is likely almost every computer user has committed software piracy of one form or another. The Software Publisher’s Association (SPA) and Business Software Alliance (BSA) studies reveal software piracy costs companies multibillions of dollars. Copying a retail software package without paying for it is theft. Just because doing something wrong with a computer is easy does not mean it is ethical, legal, or acceptable. The Hacker’s Fallacy. Numerous reports and publications of the commonly accepted hacker belief is that it is acceptable to do anything with a computer as long as the motivation is to learn and not to gain or make a profit from such activities. This so-called hacker ethic is explored in more depth in the following section. The Free Information Fallacy. A somewhat curious opinion of many is the notion that information â€Å"wants to be free,† as mentioned earlier. It is suggested that this fallacy emerged from the fact that it is so easy to copy digital information and to distribute it widely. However, this line of thinking completely ignores the fact the copying and distribution of data is completely under the control and whim of the people who do it, and to a great extent, the people who allow it to happen. Hacking and Hacktivism Hacking is an ambivalent term, most commonly perceived as being part of criminal activities. However, hacking has been used to describe the work of individuals who have been associated with the open-source movement. Many of the developments in information technology have resulted from what has typically been considered as hacking activities. Manuel Castells considers hacker culture as the â€Å"informationalism† that incubates technological breakthrough, identifying hackers as the actors in the transition from an academically and institutionally constructed milieu of innovation to the emergence of self-organizing networks transcending organizational control. A hacker was originally a person who sought to understand computers as thoroughly as possible. Soon hacking came to be associated with phreaking, breaking into phone networks to make free phone calls, which is clearly illegal. The Hacker Ethic. The idea of a hacker ethic originates in the activities of the original hackers at MIT and Stanford in the 1950s and 1960s. Stephen Levy outlined the so-called hacker ethic as follows: 1. Access to computers should be unlimited and total. 2. All information should be free. 3. Authority should be mistrusted and decentralization promoted. 4. Hackers should be judged solely by their skills at hacking, rather than by race, class, age, gender, or position. 5. Computers can be used to create art and beauty. . Computers can change your life for the better. The hacker ethic has three main functions: 1. It promotes the belief of individual activity over any form of corporate authority or system of ideals. 2. It supports a completely free-market approach to the exchange of and access to information. 3. It promotes the belief that computers can have a beneficial and life-changing effect. Such ideas are in conflict with a wide range of computer professionals’ various cod es of ethics. Ethics Codes of Conduct and Resources Several organizations and groups have defined the computer ethics their members should observe and practice. In fact, most professional organizations have adopted a code of ethics, a large percentage of which address how to handle information. To provide the ethics of all professional organizations related to computer use would fill a large book. The following are provided to give you an opportunity to compare similarities between the codes and, most interestingly, to note the differences and sometimes contradictions in the codes followed by the various diverse groups. Information Security Information security means protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, perusal, inspection, recording or destruction Information Security Attributes: or qualities, i. e. , Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability (CIA). Information Systems are decomposed in three main portions, hardware, software and communications with the purpose to help identify and apply information security industry standards, as mechanisms of protection and prevention, at three levels or layers: physical, personal and organizational. Essentially, procedures or policies are implemented to tell people (administrators, users and operators)how to use products to ensure information security within the organizations. Confidentiality Confidentiality is the term used to prevent the disclosure of information to unauthorized individuals or systems. For example, a credit card transaction on the Internet requires the credit card number to be transmitted from the buyer to the merchant and from the merchant to a transaction processing network. The system attempts to enforce confidentiality by encrypting the card number during transmission, by limiting the places where it might appear (in databases, log files, backups, printed receipts, and so on), and by restricting access to the places where it is stored. If an unauthorized party obtains the card number in any way, a breach of confidentiality has occurred. Confidentiality is necessary (but not sufficient) for maintaining the privacy of the people whose personal information a system holds. [citation needed] Integrity In information security, integrity means that data cannot be modified undetectably. [citation needed] This is not the same thing as referential integrity in databases, although it can be viewed as a special case of Consistency as understood in the classic ACID model of transaction processing. Integrity is violated when a message is actively modified in transit. Information security systems typically provide message integrity in addition to data confidentiality. Accessibility For any information system to serve its purpose, the information must be available when it is needed. This means that the computing systems used to store and process the information, the security controls used to protect it, and the communication channels used to access it must be functioning correctly. High availability systems aim to remain available at all times, preventing service disruptions due to power outages, hardware failures, and system upgrades. Ensuring availability also involves preventing denial-of-service attacks. Authenticity In computing, e-Business, and information security, it is necessary to ensure that the data, transactions, communications or documents (electronic or physical) are genuine. It is also important for authenticity to validate that both parties involved are who they claim they are. Non-repudiation In law, non-repudiation implies one’s intention to fulfill their obligations to a contract. It also implies that one party of a transaction cannot deny having received a transaction nor can the other party deny having sent a transaction. Electronic commerce uses technology such as digital signatures and public key encryption to establish authenticity and non-repudiation. c. Conclusion Impact of Computer Ethics on Information Security The relationship between information security and computer ethics does not look, on the surface, readily obvious, and even appears remote. It is, however, credible. Culture, customs, trust and privacy that characterize security fall within the realm of ethics. Computer ethics alert information security management to ethical considerations and warn potential offenders of ethical consequences in situations where the technical tools or the legal measures fail. In these cases, an ethical decision may be helpful in bringing about a solution. Furthermore, this conclusion is consistent with the following premises with respect to technical controls, computer laws and computer ethics: †¢Premise 1: The information security management community has applied control tools to meet the information security objectives of safeguarding confidentiality against unauthorized access, upholding integrity and maintaining availability. However, detecting computer crime is difficult, because the act is either traceless or difficult to trace. Quantifying the damage is problematic since the victims all too often withhold reporting the crime for reasons including fear of recrimination and bad publicity. 8 Therefore, the technical control tools are ineffective, with respect to legal issues. †¢Premise 2: Computer laws have been enacted in various nations at an ever-increasing rate since the late 1980s, when business and the society at large were forced to face the magnitude and severity of damage not experienced prior to computer crimes. There has been a dramatic increase in specialized legislation to combat criminal behaviors related to computer crime, which include traditional crimes committed with the use of a computer and a variety of new, technologyspecific criminal behaviors spawned by the rapid emergence of computer technologies and the exponential expansion of the Internet. 10 However, despite the additional new laws, prosecution is deterred because the legal proceeding is a tardy, time-consuming and expensive pr ocess, even when there are well-justified intentions to proceed with legal action. Also, legislation always lags behind the event such that either no appropriate laws are found or the new law is too late for the case in hand. Hence, computer laws are at best a deterrent to computer crime, not a guardian of information. †¢Premise 3: Computer ethicists assert, on the one hand, that special ethical issues are raised because computers are special technology, and query, on the other hand, why there should be computer ethics since, for example, there is no such thing as telephone ethics even though the telephone is a special technology that makes a profound change on the way individuals communicate with others. 1 However, information security is worthy of ethical consideration as many decisions in information technology affect a wide range of stakeholders. National and international computer societies have promoted codes of ethical practice and even written these codes into their constitutions. As technology advances, computers continue to have a greater impact on s ociety. Therefore, computer ethics promotes the discussion of how much influence computers should have in areas such as information security, artificial intelligence and human communication. As the world of computers evolves, computer ethics continues to create ethical standards that address new issues raised by new technologies. Reference http://www. isaca. org/Journal http://plato. stanford. edu/entries/ethics-computer/ http://www. cmpe. boun. edu. tr/~say/c150/intro/lit10. html How to cite Computer Ethics and Information Systems, Essay examples

An Anaylsis of Edgar Allan Poe A Dream free essay sample

It is his way of allowing the narrator a chance to escape from the harsh realties of life into a dream –like reality of how he truly wants life to be. In the first stanza of the poem, the narrator is explaining his dream to the reader. It starts out by telling the reader that in the mist of the darkness surrounding him, he had a dream that brought much joy to his heart, it was full of life and light and then he awoke to only discover that it was truly a dream that left him broken hearted and this was a very devastating thing for him to grasp. The second stanza posses the question what is a dream?He wants to know is life by day a dream of the past or is it a reality of the future. I’m thinking that the narrator had a horrible life in the past, just as Poe, and his life is now a reflection of his past and that he wishes it was all a bad dream and that it would go away in the morning just like his wonderful dream he had that night did when he awoke in the morning. In the third stanza he refers to his dream as â€Å"That holy dream—that holy dream†. It was a shield of protection from a world that was continuously scolding his thoughts, and actions. â€Å"It cheered me as a lovely beam/ A lonely spirit guiding† (Online Literature. om). It was like a beautiful light had shone upon his lonely life and guided him to happiness. In the finally stanza, the narrator wanted to know how did this wonderful dream full of bright light make it through the darkness and storms of night (his life). In other words, how did this dream of me living a wonderful life make it into my dark and miserable mind? How did it get through my twisted life into my thoughts? How could someone like me have a dream of such magnitude when I have such a horrible life? He wants to know â€Å"What could there be more purely bright/ In Truth’s day-star? †(Online Literature. om) Meaning is there anything more pure, bright and truthful than the sun, so I guess my dream was just that a dream and not real life. This particular poem reminds me of Poe’s poem â€Å"The Raven,† because in â€Å"A Dream,† the narrator desperately wants to escape from his horrible life by living in his dreams, but he knows he can’t n o matter how hard he tries because his dreams are not real life and he just has to learn to accept it just like in the poem â€Å"The Raven,† the narrator is trying desperately to escape from his pain of losing Lenore but he cant because his memories of her will always reside in his heart.In this poem the narrator tries to use the raven as an escape from his feelings of Lenore. In both of these poems, the narrators are two depressed men living a life full of sorrow and they learn that no matter how hard you try in life there are just some things you can’t escape from and you have to find a way to move on from it so you could continue to live your life. â€Å"A Dream† like many of Poe’s poems is written in a Shakespearian quatrain with perfect rhyme schemes (Dipsolect. com). This poem also consists of alliterations in the second (line 1) and third stanzas (line 2).It is written in iambic parameter, but it also consists of other literary devices such as the internal rhyme scheme use in the first line of the finally verse, his use of rhetorical questions in first stanza and the trochaic endings in the first and third stanza. He also uses enjambment to connect the first line with the second and the third line with the fourth â€Å"The spondaic ending on the last line of the poem might also be worth noting, as it ends the poem in a double stressed syllable† (Dipsolect. om). It makes the reader feel that the ending is missing and they don’t quite understand how the narrator truly feels at the end of this poem. This poem has a sense of desperation and unhappiness from the narrator. Dipsolect says â€Å"It is not difficult to imagine the narrator sitting curled up in a dark corner of a room, a graveyard or a pub, reciting the poem† (Dipsolect. com). The narrator is obviously in a state of depression and you can sense this throughout the entire poem.He uses the word joy but there is no joy in his life, that’s why he is relying on his dream but it only brings him joy for a moment because after he awakes he comes back to reality. Honestly, I think he’s still not happy within his dream because he knows this is not real and probably wants to understand how a person in his state can have a wonderful dream because his life is full of darkness and sadness. The narrator’s play on words makes the poem become more abstract to the reader, because you would think he was excited about his dream but in reality he was not.According to Dipsolect, â€Å"This could be seen as allowing the reader a great deal of room for interpretation, or as a literary device of mysticism† (Dipsolect. com). There can be many interpretations of â€Å"A Dream† because the last line of the poem leaves the reader guessing and even if you reread the poem you can still gain many different interpretations. My interpretation is this: After reading â€Å"A Dream†, I feel that the narrator is a lonely, misunderstood man that’s seeking a new life.Like Poe, the narrator had a hard life growing up and it has continued or gotten worse in his adult life. He desperately wants to leave his horrible life behind and start a new one. This is where the dream comes into play. When he’s asleep he can escape his horrible life and the negative people around and go into a world where he could have peace, love, and acceptance from the people surrounding him. This is what the narrator wanted along with Poe wanted in life.I also think he felt that he was undeserved of this caliber of life because it has been awful for so long. â€Å"A Dream† is a difficult poem to understand with many interpretations. My interpretation of the poem was sort of different from the scholarly source I use. He felt that the use of darkness was a strength for the narrator in the poem and the use of light was a weakness for the narrator I felt the opposite. After, rereading the poem for the tenth time I see where he/she is coming from and I also see why I went in a different direction.The last line of the poem is not really the closing of the poem. The poem feels incomplete and I feel that it allows the reader to have many different thoughts and interpretations of this poem. However, this was a well written poem and it does what all of Poe’s poems does keeps the reader in suspense and make the feel a sense of sorrow for the character/ narrator in his works. Works Citied â€Å" Analysis of Edgar Allan Poe’s â€Å" A Dream† † Literature Reviews I. Dipsolect, 4 August 2004 Web. 10 Nov. 2011. http://www. online-literature. com/poe/2159/

Monday, May 4, 2020

human sexuality notes Essay Example For Students

human sexuality notes Essay MIDTERM #3 CH. 9 SEXUAL BEHAVIORS CELIBACY Complete celibacy a person who does not masturbate or have interpersonal sexual contact. Partial celibacy- does not have interpersonal sexual contact, but still masturbates. Celibacy or abstinence is an option until the person is ready for a sexual relationship- and becomes a positive act. Religion/morals: becoming a priest or a nun includes a vow of celibacy, celibacy until marriage, personal criteria for a good sexual relationship has been met, have experienced sexual confusion or disappointment in the past EROTIC DREAMS AND FANTASY -mental experiences (books, drawings, movies, photos) ways to explore and express experiences, feelings, and desires. Erotic dreams: dreams and orgasm may occur during sleep without a persons conscious direction. Can be logical or make no sense. Wake up with signs of sexual arousal-erection, vaginal lubrication, pelvic movements. Nocturnal orgasm- involuntary orgasm during sleep Erotic fantasy: happen during daydreams, masturbation, or sex with a partner. (Images to representations of past experiences) Functions: source of pleasure and arousal during masturbation or sex with partner, overcome anxiety in a negative sexual situation, forbidden wishes, provide relief from gender role expectations Male-female similarities and differences in sexual fantasy 1)frequency is similar for both sexes during sexual activity with a px 2)both men and women indicate a wide range of fantasy content differences: men- fantasies more active, focus on womans body and what he wants to do to it. Woman- fantasies more passive, focus on mens interests in their bodies. men- focus on explicit sexual acts, nude bodies woman- more emotional context- romance men- fantasize about multiple partners and group sex woman- submission fantasies Helpful and healthy aspect to sexuality MASTURBATION -Learning what feels good and what doesnt -Learning what leads to sexual arousal and orgasm -Developing erotic turn-ons and fantasies -Relive sexual tension -Can be a shared experience! Who has PV orgasms? (no hands) 19% of females who do not masturbate, 26% of females who do. You dont have to masturbate to have a good sex life. Men masturbate about 3x more that females- more sexual, more learning Kinsey- woman masturbate more after they reach their 20s than in teens because of an increase in erotic responsiveness, more opportunities for learning about self stimulation, and a reduction in sexual inhibitions Ethnicity and masturbation: white men and women masturbate more than african american men and women. Hispanic woman have lowest rate. The higher the education level the more likely to masturbate. People living with sexual px more likely to masturbate than those living alone. 7 easy non threatening steps to learn self pleasuring 1)look at her own body in private 2)feel her own body 3)touch parts of body that feel arousing 4)try to get sexually aroused (use jellies) 5)extended masturbation- triggers: tighten legs and thighs, head of side of bed, water stimulation 6)male watches her masturbate 7)male imitates- listens to her and does what she likes and what feels good -makes couples feel closer together! She and her px can explore together 1)diff patterns of clitoral stimulation (circular, up and down, and back and forth) 2)diff levels of pressure: gentle-stronger- pulsing 3)the 3 finger technique (3-4-5) 3 weakest fingers The frenulum for female split of each side of minor lips (little man in a boat) see pic. 4) oral stimulation- tongue is moist and too strong Aspects of interactive sexuality Feelings, desires, and attitudes strongly influence choices about sexual activity. -Sensitivity to you and your pxs needs will develop shared pleasure and arousal more effectively than any specific technique. -Mutual consent- sexual activities that both pxs are willing to engage in are more likely to provide a couple with enjoyable sexual experiences. Maltz Hierarcy- he sees sexual energy as a neutral force- the intent and consequences of sexual behavior can lead in pos or neg directions (married couples- can be passionate or spousal rape) 3 levels: Positive: emotional openness, lovemaking experiences! Level +1: positive role fulfillment -social-role behavior -religious or cultural duty; sex for reproduction Beatles EssayLevel +2- Making Love -pleasure focused -mutuality -experimentation Level +3- Authentic sexual intimacy -emotional openness and closeness; feelings of ecstasy Sexual energy (ground zero) Negative- sexual interactions may be upsetting or traumatic Level 1 Impersonal interaction -sexually transmitted diseases -or well-being of self and other Level 2 Abusive Interaction -sexual dominance and coercion Level 3 Violent Interaction -sex used to express hostility -rape KISSING AND TOUCHING Kissing: can be intense, erotic, profound Touching: 1st and most important sense that we experience -does not need to be directed to an erogenous area to be sexual- anywhere can enhance sexual intimacy. Pleasurable to both the receiver and the giver. .